1. Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement
Content
- 1.1 Scalars and vectors
- 1.2 Measurement techniques
- 1.3 Units and symbols
Learning outcomes
(a) Define the terms scalar and vector.
(b) Determine the resultant of two vectors by a graphical method.
(c) List the vectors and scalars from distance, displacement, length, speed, velocity, time, acceleration, mass and force.
(d) Describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy using tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers using a vernier as necessary.
(e) Describe how to measure a variety of time intervals using clocks and stopwatches.
(f) Recognize and use the conventions and symbols contained in ‘Signs, Symbols and Systematics’, Association for Science Education, 2000.
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2. Kinematics
(a) state what is meant by speed and velocity.
(b) calculate average speed using distance traveled/time taken.
(c) state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity/time taken.
(d) discuss non-uniform acceleration.
(e) plot and interpret speed-time and distance-time graphs.
(f) recognize from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is
(1) at rest,
(2) moving with uniform speed,
(3) moving with uniform acceleration,
(4) moving with non-uniform acceleration.
(g) calculate the area under a speed-time graph to determine the distance travelled for motion with uniform speed or uniform acceleration.
(h) state that the acceleration of free-fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately
10 m / s2.
(i) describe qualitatively the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with and without air resistance
(including reference to terminal velocity).
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Section II:
Newtonian Mechanics2. Kinematics
Content
- 2.1 Speed, velocity and acceleration
- 2.2 Graphical analysis of motion
- 2.3 Free-fall
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state what is meant by speed and velocity.
(b) calculate average speed using distance traveled/time taken.
(c) state what is meant by uniform acceleration and calculate the value of an acceleration using change in velocity/time taken.
(d) discuss non-uniform acceleration.
(e) plot and interpret speed-time and distance-time graphs.
(f) recognize from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is
(1) at rest,
(2) moving with uniform speed,
(3) moving with uniform acceleration,
(4) moving with non-uniform acceleration.
(g) calculate the area under a speed-time graph to determine the distance travelled for motion with uniform speed or uniform acceleration.
(h) state that the acceleration of free-fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is approximately
10 m / s2.
(i) describe qualitatively the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with and without air resistance
(including reference to terminal velocity).
_________________________________________
3. Dynamics
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state Newton’s third law.
Content
- 3.1 Balanced and unbalanced forces
- 3.2 Friction
- 3.3 Circular motion
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state Newton’s third law.
(b) describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body.
(c) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body.
(d) do calculations using the equation force = mass × acceleration.
(e) explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body.
(f) discuss the effect of friction on the motion of a vehicle in the context of tyre surface, road
conditions
(including skidding), braking force, braking distance, thinking distance and stopping distance.
(including skidding), braking force, braking distance, thinking distance and stopping distance.
(g) describe qualitatively motion in a circular path due to a constant perpendicular force, including
electrostatic forces on an electron in an atom and gravitational forces on a satellite. (F = mv 2/r is not
required.)
electrostatic forces on an electron in an atom and gravitational forces on a satellite. (F = mv 2/r is not
required.)
(h) discuss how ideas of circular motion are related to the motion of planets in the solar system.
4. Mass, Weight and Density
Content
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body.
(b) state that the mass of a body resists change from its state of rest or motion.
(c) state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction.
(d) calculate weight from the equation weight = mass × gravitational field strength.
(e) explain that weights, and therefore masses, may be compared using a balance.
(f) describe how to measure mass and weight by using appropriate balances.
(g) describe how to use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of a liquid or solid.
(h) describe how to determine the density of a liquid, of a regularly shaped solid and of an irregularly shaped solid which sinks in water (volume by displacement)
5. Turning Effect of Forces
Content
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples.
(b) state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium.
(c) make calculations using moment of a force = force × perpendicular distance from the pivot and the principle of moments.
(d) describe how to verify the principle of moments.
(e) describe how to determine the position of the center of mass of a plane lamina.
(f) describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects.
4. Mass, Weight and Density
Content
- 4.1 Mass and weight
- 4.2 Gravitational fields
- 4.3 Density
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body.
(b) state that the mass of a body resists change from its state of rest or motion.
(c) state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction.
(d) calculate weight from the equation weight = mass × gravitational field strength.
(e) explain that weights, and therefore masses, may be compared using a balance.
(f) describe how to measure mass and weight by using appropriate balances.
(g) describe how to use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of a liquid or solid.
(h) describe how to determine the density of a liquid, of a regularly shaped solid and of an irregularly shaped solid which sinks in water (volume by displacement)
5. Turning Effect of Forces
Content
- 5.1 Moments
- 5.2 Center of mass
- 5.3 Stability
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples.
(b) state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium.
(c) make calculations using moment of a force = force × perpendicular distance from the pivot and the principle of moments.
(d) describe how to verify the principle of moments.
(e) describe how to determine the position of the center of mass of a plane lamina.
(f) describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects.
6. Deformation
Content
- 6.1 Elastic deformation
Learning outcomes
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body.
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